Abhay Shivgounda Patil

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Tarana! Tale of Mystically Auspicious Syllables of Music

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This is a blog version of the narration for a Tarana (तराना) concert by Ms Jayanti Sahasrabuddhe, accompanied by Vivek Datar (Harmonium) and Ravi Gutala (Tabla), on August 12, 2017, organized by Eventscoop.  (Jayanti is the disciple of Hindustani Classical music virtuoso Dr Veena Sahasrabuddhe.)

Tarana is a special form in the repertoire of the Hindustani art music.

Vocalists normally render compositions that have words in it. The lyrics, of course, carry appropriate meaning. However, focus is always the melody and rhythm – sur and taal. Performer and audience, both, explore the emotion through music – words typically take back seat. Enter Tarana, Trivat, Raas and Khayal-numa. These are the forms that abandon words and instead use the the meaningless sound clusters – the mystically auspicious syllables of music!

Tarana doesn’t restrict itself to any particular raga or taal.

Setting free from the tyranny of words

Noted musician and writer Aneesh Pradhan explains that Tarana probably best represents the vocalist’s urge to move away from song-text and into the realm of instrumental music. It uses syllables of music allowing musicians to be unfettered – without the restrictions that literal language may pose.

There is another aspect too. Language purist routinely get disturbed by “mangling” of words – at times the distortion gets so bad that it alters the meaning! And many a time “poetry” doesn’t rise to the class of the music. So, may be, the thought of setting oneself free from the tyranny of words must have fascinated musicians!

The etymology of Tarana

Tarana – this word is derived from Persian word Tarannum – which literary means a song 

Some musicians believe that the syllables, the so called meaningless words, used in tarana, in fact have a base in Persian, but that these connections have been lost over the years. There sure is a reason to believe in this claim – as this “meaningless” bols do reveal their Persian origin. Take the words  yalaliNadir, Derena. In persian ‘yalaliya Ali, Nadir– unique, DerenaDarina– old.

The Farmayishi Tarana variant does actually use Farsi words.

Tarana is “Extreme Programming”

Those who belong to the field of software development – let me tell you that Tarana is to music what “extreme programming” is to software development. Why? The operating principle of extreme programming is that whatever is good – take it to the extreme. Example? Peer review is good. Take it to extreme – do pair programming! In classical music, music is important. Lyrics incidental. Take it to extreme. Drop the literal language completely. So!

Origin of Tarana

Like everything else (!) Amir Khusro is credited with the origin of Tarana.  He was a bard in the court of Sultan of Delhi – Allaudin Khilji. That was 14th century. The story goes like this. Amir Khusro heard Gopal Nayak sing Raag Kadambak. He did not understand the Sanskrit words, but remembered the notes. Later he sang the composition using “bols” of mridangam, sitar and tabla – and that was Tarana. But see – sitar and tabla arrived on the scene much later!  .

Veenatai’s research tells us that there indeed was a form of music much earlier – found in the compositions of Marathi saint Dasopant. There are also references to “Kaivad Prabandh” in a book by Sharangdeo in 12th century – it was sung in the form of bols of Mridangam.

To each his own

Veenatai compares Tarana and Tappa – both creative variants of classical music. Both allow the artist to dazzle audience with their range. While Tarana preserves purity of the raaga, Tappa has no such restrictions. Another interesting point she makes is that Tarana being bereft of words, listeners are not bound by the meaning of words – and each one can experience it differently!

When everything has been sung

Pt Kumar Gandharv said once thus.

When everything has been sung, and the feeling of inadequacy still persists, then the musical form tarana satisfies your quest.

Anecdotes about the composers

Pt Kashinath Shankar Bodas, elder brother of Late Veenatai Sahasrabuddhe, was a prolific composer. Veenatai used to demand made to order taranas from him. I came across a heartwarming note by Veenatai in her memoirs where she shared how Kashinathji used to hear out people, during normal conversation, as if he was enjoying a concert! He was a keen student of music, fond of collecting bandish, and was influenced by Pt Kumar Gandharva.

Pt Balvantrai Bhat, was considered a complete vaggeyakar – one who has mastery over both “vak” (words) and “gey” (melody).  His pen-name was Bhavrang

It’s amusing the way artists use metaphors from their craft. Once Bhaiyaji (as Pt Bhat was called by his near ones), Veenatai and Prof Sahasrabuddhe (Veenatai’s husband) were traveling together in a car. Initially it was  Prof Sahasrabuddhe at the wheel. Bhaiyaji was visually impaired – but he figured at once that, on the way back, it was Veenatai who was driving. “The car is moving in the Gwalior gharana style (of music)” he exclaimed. “It has both gamak (गमक) and meend (मींड)”, he added. “It must be Veena!”. (From Veenatai’s book उत्तराधिकार – सांगीतिक परंपरा : कुछ विचार.)

Let’s check what gamak and meend means and relate that to driving an automobile. 

Gamak – is traditionally described as a vibratory effect in producing a tone to the delight of the listeners. Here the artist gives touches of the preceding and succeeding notes.

Meend: A melodic embellishment where the passage from one note to the lower is achieved by maintaining continuity. It is an act of कर्षणक्रिया (act of stretching).

So one gets an idea how Veenatai must be changing gears and what effect it had on the ride – the vibratory effect that was Bhaiyaji’s delight!


  • Keywords and Concepts – Hindustani Classical Music, Ashok Da Ranade (Promilla & Co. Publishers, New Delhi) ISBN  81 85002 12 6
  • Tarana: How Indian classical music broke free from the confines of language, Aneesh Pradhan.
  • Article by Ms Anjali Malkar on Tarana. (Link from shadjamadhyam.com not available.)
  • उत्तराधिकार – सांगीतिक परंपरा : कुछ विचार, वीणा सहस्रबुद्धे
  • संगीत कला विहार, मार्च  २०१७ अंक (अखिल भारतीय गांधर्व महाविद्यालय मंडल, मुंबई)




Written by Abhay Shivgounda Patil

September 2, 2017 at 2:01 pm

Posted in India, Music

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कविता १०१

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IrshaadStageगणित अाणि कविता या दोन गोष्टीत कमालीचं साम्य अाहे. दोन्ही अल्पाक्षरी – फाफटपसारा अजिबात नाही. दोन्हीत अाशय अाणि अर्थ ठासून भरलेला. अाणि, “अाम्हाला त्यातलं काही कळत नाही” असं म्हणून त्यापासून दूर पळणारे लोकही दोन्हीकडे. गेल्या महिन्यात संदीप खरे अाणि वैभव जोशी या कवीद्वयांचा “इर्शाद” हा काव्यवाचनाचा कार्यक्रम कॅलिफोर्नियाच्या सिलीकॉन व्हॅलीत झाला तेंव्हा प्रेक्षकांत “कविता कळत नाही” संप्रदायातले जे कोणी होते त्या सगळ्यांचं  irreversible ह्रदयपरिवर्तन झालं असणार यात शंका नाही! मित्र संजय अापटेची फेसबुकवरची प्रतिक्रिया प्रातिनिधिक होती.

शाळेत मराठी पद्य म्हणजे आम्ही जेमतेम पास. कुठल्याही कवितेने मला मुळापासुन हलवल वगैरे नाही की कधी माझ्या मनात कसलेही तरंग वगैरे निर्माण केले नाहीत, त्यामुळे कवितांच्या कार्यक्रमापासून मी बहुधा लांबच राहतो पण काल कॅलिफोर्निया आर्टस् ससोसिएशन (Calaa) च्या १५ वर्ष निमित्त झालेल्या संदीप खरे आणि वैभव जोशींच्या ‘इर्शाद’ कार्यक्रमात जरा डोकावलो आणि मेलो. चक्क कविता ऐकत बसलो, नुसत्याच ऐकल्या नाहीत तर प्रचंड आवडल्या.

म्हणजे Science मधे गोडी निर्माण व्हावी म्हणून Popular Science लिहीणाऱ्या शास्त्रज्ञांसारखंच या कवींचं काम महत्वाचं अाहे. “मंचीय कविता” असं म्हणून काहीजण काव्यवाचनाच्या कार्यक्रमाला कमी लेखत असतीलही, पण या निमीत्ताने कवितेकडे लोक वळतील हे नक्की. अमेरिकेत विद्यापीठात विषयाची अोळख करून देणाऱ्या course ला “अमुक तमुक १०१” असे नाव देतात – तसा हा “कविता १०१”! कर्मधर्मसंयोगाने मला हा कार्यक्रम त्यांच्या शेजारी बसून ऐकता अाला. अोळख करून देतांना मी कवी नारायण कुळकर्णी कवठेकर यांच्या या ओळी उधृत केल्या.

अनुल्लेखानं वाळलं तर
पायाखाली चुरगाळलं तर;
याहून मोठा
अन्याय होईल फुलांवर
त्यांचं नाव
जीवनावश्यक वस्तूंच्या यादीतून
गाळलं तर.

कविताही फुलांसारखीच जीवनावश्यक गोष्ट अाहे हे नक्की!

बरं, इथपर्यंत अालाच अाहात तर मी वाचलेल्या (माझ्या नाहीत – घाबरू नका) या कविताही जाता जाता ऐका.
एक दिवस मी परमेश्वराला – कवी केशव मेश्राम

अमेरिकन शेतकरी भाऊ! – कवी वसंत बापट

तू हवीस यात न पाप – कवी पु. शि. रेगे

शिरच्छेद – कवी वैभव छाया


Written by Abhay Shivgounda Patil

May 13, 2017 at 8:42 pm

Who Killed Gandhi?

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lkgGodse was not the killer – he was just an instrument of a much bigger conspiracy. There were as many as five unsuccessful attempts on Gandhi’s life, last one barely 10 days before the fateful day. After the last attempt, there was enough information to nab Godse and his accomplices, but it remains a mystery why the police did not act. After the murder, police were lax in acknowledging, leave alone following up on, the tell tale evidence. So much so that the trial Justice Atma Charan closed his judgment stating that the Police should have been named as one of the accused. It is as if everybody, including the ruling Congress Party, was content to avenge one death with two lives – and were not too eager to pursue the case. The Jivanlal Kapur commission proved to be a redeeming development, however the current ruling dispensation is working on removing this report from the official records.

Today (Nov 6, 2016) I heard Tushar Gandhi in Pune. His great grandmother, Kasturba, died in Pune and the murderers of his great grandfather hailed from Pune. It was an emotional speech, with startling facts. What I picked up from his talk is shocking enough that I am eager to read his well researched book, Let’s kill Gandhi. (He was in Pune to release a book, written by a young activist Sanket Munot, countering widespread misconceptions about Gandhi.)

Here are some of the notes I made during the talk.

First attempt on Gandhi’s life happened in 1934 when he was in Pune to accept civic felicitation. A hand bomb was hurled at his car. The case was closed with no arrests. Later, a forensic report confirmed that the hand bomb used in 1934 was from the same batch of hand bombs that were thrown at a Muharram procession in Ahmednagar in 1946. These bombs were recovered from the residence of Vishnu Karkare, the convict in Gandhi’s murder.

Madan Lal Pahwa was arrested after he hurled a hand bomb, on January 20th during Gandhiji’s prayer meeting. This was just 10 days before Gandhi was killed. Pahwa did lead the police to the hotel room where the kingpins of the conspiracy had met with him. There was tell tale evidence, including laundered clothes bearing initials NVG (Nathuram Vinayak Godse) – but Police did not act. Ashutosh Lahiri (?), who was ready to depose was not interrogated. When questioned by the Court, the police chief infamously gave the explanation that they did not expect the conspirators to revert so quickly. (“They were not playing cricket” -was the actual statement!)

Godse and his accomplice Apte were complete novices when it came to firearms. Just two days before Godse killed Gandhi, it is a mystery how he acquired one of the most sophisticated revolvers of that time – a Beretta. It was apparently surrendered by an Italian troupe to a General in King of Gwalior Jiwaji Rao Shinde’s army. The arms dealer Sharma, from whom Godse acquired it, was never interrogated enough on this count.

Godse was not known to be good with words. He did edit a few journals, but his style was aggressive and never persuasive enough.  Godse’s argument in the appeals court, that is available on the net, was so powerful that one of the Justices hearing the case remarked that had the people in the Court turned jury, they would have acquitted Godse. Tushar Gandhi claims that there was no way Godse could have drafted that speech – he believes that it was work of one of the most gifted litterateurs, V D Savarkar.

On the afternoon of January 30, pamphlets – allegedly printed in Amritsar – were distributed in Alwar, Rajsthan, announcing death of Gandhi. Gandhi was killed in the evening.

Digambar Badge, the bodyguard of Veer Savarkar turned approver; and his deposition was considered fit to hang two convicts. Tushar Gandhi claimed that, it is intriguing why the evidence he shared regarding Veer Savarkar was rejected by the Court. However, Justice Jivanlal Kapur came down harshly on Savarkar in his report, terming his acquittal purely technical.

And finally, he talked about the bogey that Gandhi forced Indian Government to give Rupees 55 Crore to Pakistan; and that he was the one responsible for the partition.

When Mountbatten came back with the proposal for partition, it was only Gandhi who opposed it. No organization, RSS and Hindu Mahasabha included, agitated against it. Nehru and Patel did not like the idea – but they accepted it as a “practical” step. Later Nehru confessed that he did not anticipate the terrible human cost that the partition entailed – and that only Gandhi saw it, but to no avail. Gandhi confided to Pyarelal that neither the leader who was like a son to him, nor the one who claimed to be his inheritor, was ready to listen to Gandhi’s counsel. They were in tearing hurry to get the power and overlooked the consequences that proved to be too bloody – only comparable to the holocaust.

Gandhi’s last fast was NOT for pressing Indian Government to give the promised Rs. 55 Crore to Pakistan. It was for peace. It is a fact that the newly born Indian nation was almost bent on renegading on it’s very first commitment as a sovereign nation. The brutal violence that erupted post partition had the whole country boiling with rage against Pakistan and the then Government did not want to be seen as Pakistan’s benefactor. But they also knew that not keeping the promise meant a huge loss of credibility for the new born country. Gandhi’s fast turned out to be a good excuse to do the right thing, but that also meant turning the ire of the nation towards Gandhi. Note that Gandhi DID NOT end his fast on this announcement. His fast was not for the 55 Crore – it was for peace.

And Godse claimed that Gandhi’s fast for giving money to Pakistan was the last straw.





Written by Abhay Shivgounda Patil

November 6, 2016 at 11:52 pm

Posted in History, India, Uncategorized

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Interviewing for Hiring – Nobel Laureate’s Advice

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So, the million dollar question is: are you prepared to keep away, albeit briefly,  the belief in your expertise, intuition, heuristics, judgment, out of the box thinking, intelligence, cleverness and what not; and follow a rigorous algorithmic process for interviewing candidates?

Read more to find out how Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman’s advice applies to recruiting. >> Read the blog on LinkedIn.

Image on left: Courtesy Abhijit Bhaduri abhijitbhaduri.com


Written by Abhay Shivgounda Patil

February 21, 2016 at 10:55 am

Sharad Joshi – Four Decades of Farmer Agitation and Politics

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Courtesy Loksatta.com

Courtesy Loksatta.com

Sharad Joshi, the thinker economist, who led historic farmers’ agitations in the eighties turned  eighty this year.  An ardent votary of globalization and free market economy, it is interesting to read his unsparing and candid commentary on the farmers’ issue, the state of affairs, the current crop of farmer leaders, Modi and Sharad Pawar. 

Translated (abridged) from original Marathi interview in Loksatta, Sunday, August 30, 2015. Interviewer Satish Kamat Email: pemsatish.kamat AT gmail DOT com.

Four decades ago, an urbane 40 something left a plum job at the United Nations and settled in a village near Pune (Maharashtra) to experiment with farming. His foray in agriculture confirmed his belief that farming could never be profitable in India, as the market prices of farm produce are not linked to the production costs. He spearheaded two major agitations – one of the onion growers in 1978, and the other of sugar cane and onion producers together in 1980.  The politicians who used to pay lip service to farmers’ plight woke up from their slumber. They realized that farmers could no more be taken for granted. Some of them did manage to build bridges with him to weather the storm. Following are the excerpts from his interview by Mr. Satish Kamat.

On the current leadership of farmers.

While it is good to find many farmers’ organizations taking up the cause – I find them bereft of vision. They are mostly copying what I propounded decades ago without checking it’s relevance in today’s times. It was the market price then, but now it is about water management and crop control.  These leaders may appear successful in pockets, but in reality they are extremely ordinary people without any solid understanding of the issues.

You agitated only for the well-to-do farmers – the onion and sugar cane growers.

Onion is linked to the political sensitivity and sugar cane is about economic elasticity. Maharashtra’s share in national onion production is 40%. I knew that if I took up these crops we could choke the nation. One has to also think about one’s ability to sustain the agitation. How could I do that with the marginal farmers and landless laborers? It was a part of our war plan.

You were apolitical in the beginning, then went as far as sharing  stage with politicians of all hues who had barely any interest in farmers’ issues. In 1985 Sharad Pawar in opposition supported you, and then in 1988 VP Singh, Chandrashekhar and Vajpayee attended your rallies. Even the extreme right wing Patit Pawan was your ally in some agitations. What gives?

At various stages of our movement I was looking for allies to work with me. But unfortunately Sharad Pawar’s casteist position proved to be more powerful than our economic agenda. For better market prices people were with us, but they voted for Pawar during elections.  We couldn’t shake off influence of caste among our followers.  One more thing, Pawar’s allegiance to the co-operative movement has always been stronger than his affinity to farmers. That was the legacy of his mentor Yashwantrao Chavan anyway. Their primary interest was ensuring uninterrupted flow of money from the center for the co-operative movement. As for agriculture, for example, today he is endorsing what we said about GM crops 25 years ago. I often joke – Pawar gets it drip by drip! As for elections, we had no choice but to resort to electoral politics as we needed to create a pressure group inside the assembly and not just outside. Unfortunately we failed.

Your agitation was known for the way it focused on women participation. Have women really become empowered?

Our 1985 Chandwad women’s convention was historic. Women account for eighty percent of farm work – but hardly get their due share. The bonus for us was that these women, once convinced, got their men folk into the movement. We were the first one to raise the issue of reservations for women. But I am against political reservations. It has made women as corrupt as men and they have lost their faith in their own strength and abilities.

In 1980 you toured Vidarbha and that region has participated in the movement in a big way. But it’s also where farmer suicides are prevalent. What should be done about it?

That’s a fact. I believe I taught them to fight but never managed to prepare them for calamities such as what they face today – that’s my failure. When one is on the verge of suicide, there needs to be someone or something that could give them strength and persuade them away from that decision. We could not create such a system. It’s also about the cultural heritage of the region. Had it been some other society, they would have indulged in thievery and plunder – but Vidarbha farmer chooses to embrace death in desperation. Fact is, farming that is solely dependent on the water from the skies is not sustainable. Water management is the key.

You have always stood for globalization and the free market economy. Debt-free farming, and not waiver for debts, was your mantra. Do you believe the current Government can change the face of farming?

Even today I remain a strong votary of globalization. Freedom is the most important value and I believe I could convince farmers about that. But now the situation has turned far more complicated. I see a lot of parallels between the socialism of the first Prime Minister Nehru and the so-called “development-politics” of PM Narendra Modi. It is clear that both are anti farmer. For Modi Industrialization means development. Period. This is the Government that brands onion as an “essential commodity” – how to confront such a regime is the key problem before farmers. Dishonest Government and weak leadership are the bane of today’s farmers.

Written by Abhay Shivgounda Patil

September 3, 2015 at 6:49 am

My blogs – So far!

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[Updated on September 2, 2017.]

Latest blog on the Musical form Tarana.

My recent “professional” blogs on LinkedIn here:
Demystifying Continuous Performance Management
Life Lessons from Originals – a wonderful book by Adam Grant
Interviewing for Hiring: Nobel Laureate’s Advice
Leadership Learning
Self-healing Systems

A few personal blogs on education, society and stuff.
If you don’t see beauty, you are not seeing
Notes from a talk by K B Jinan, the activist, designer and disruptive educationist.
Geshe Dorji Damdul on Mindfulness:
HH Dalai Lama’s confidante’s take on mindfulness.
Remembering Dijkstra
My talk on some of the quotes by the eminent computer scientist Edsgar Dijkstra.
Turning Around Universities
My notes of a talk by Prof. Deepak Phatak on how MOOC can dramatically change the role of a traditional University.
Gen Y For Dummies
Had a good time attending the NASSCOM (Pune) session on Gen Y management.
The Loss of Innocence – The IIT, Then and Now
A typical IIT student was intelligent, unassuming, self made, studious and rooted well in the “local” ethos.
Mathematics for justice!
Can we divide something between people such that everyone is guaranteed to be satisfied?
Let’s Talk Dirty!
That’s right. I do want to talk about things dirty.
Watch Thyself!
What do I do when I see an accident?
Wages of Inequality – P. Sainath’s lecture in Pune
Will we ever stop wearing our ideologies on our sleeves and instead focus on the human side of the story?
Can we ever read History with an open mind?
As an 11 year old in the 9th grade, untouched by any “ism” and totally oblivious of the label p-secular …

And here are some personal musings!
Some Poetry recital (काव्यवाचन) on Soundcloud!
संदीप खरे अाणि वैभव जोशींच्या “इर्षाद” च्या निमीत्ताने

Sharad Joshi Interview
“I see a lot of parallels between the socialism of the first Prime Minister Nehru and the so-called development-politics of PM Narendra Modi.” Always insightful to know what this iconic leader has to say on the issues that confront us. (Translated from original Marathi.)
Uniqueness of Religious Regions of Maharashtra
Religious Geography of Maharashtra – now that’s one scary academic sounding topic!
Tale of Two Relocations
My experience of two relocations – first in the year 1993 to the USA and then in 2001 to India.
दोन स्थलांतरांची गोष्ट
“तुम्ही भारतात परत का आलात?”
बोलाचे साहित्य बोलाचेच विश्व, रंकाचे धन आणि रावांचे कवित्व ॥
विश्व मराठी साहित्य संमेलन!
आता तुम्हीच काळजी घ्यायला हवी…
A poem by Shankar Vaidya.
One year of JM – FC road one way plan
Serious issues needing urgent corrective measures. (August 20, 2010)
Was ist Mitaan bitte?

Written by Abhay Shivgounda Patil

February 22, 2015 at 7:32 pm

Gen Y for the dummies

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Had a good time attending the NASSCOM (Pune) session on Gen Y management.  Here is a brief account of my take-aways.Gen Y

When a senior person goes “When I was your age“, what do you think a Gen Y really wishes to say?  “You know what – you were never my age!“.    When Ganesh Natarajan (Zensar CEO) told this story – it reminded me of the school counselor who told us parents – “You know what – you were never teenagers!

Ganesh went on to claim that the single biggest obstacle in having a harmonious relationship between Gen Y and Gen X is the inability of the Gen X to “let go“.

The Gen X is often left wondering why the Gen Y isn’t excited by the great stuff offered to them.  The catch, according to Prakash Iyer (Kimberley Clark Lever) is –  what is “great” in the eyes of Gen X is hardly so for the Gen Y.  

And then there was Mohit Gundecha (Jombay), a Gen Y himself, who put forth the best advice.

When talking to Gen Y just be 100% transparent.  Give them the advice that is best for them, not for you or the company.  They are just too smart to not understand if you are anything but transparent.  One can’t afford to be reactive with them – you have to be predictive.  Don’t go by what they did in college – it will most probably be (at least in India) not by (their) choice.  So let them do what they want to do.

And then came the killer, that could only be believed because it came from a Gen Y himself.

Don’t think that “command and control” strategy is irrelevant for Gen Y!  The old-fashioned managerial behavior is okay, nay even necessary,  if the context is right.

Anshoo Gaur (Amdocs) declared that Gen X and Gen Y are not different.  He set out to explain, in engineering-speak, that we ought to compare Gen X and Gen Y along two orthogonal axes, viz. “what” and “how“.  On the “what” axis, they are the same, and differ only on “how“.  So, his advice was, identify the invariants (i.e. “what“) – e.g. values, performance – and work on them. Don’t fret over the “how“.

The tail-piece was a story narrated by Ganesh about his conversation with the management Guru (late) C K Pralhad about education in India.  On a Delhi Mumbai flight Ganesh rued about the Indian education system (rote learning et al) and Pralhad shot back – “As a thought leader, never ever think of persuading the Government to change our education system.  If they do that, they would ruin the India story!”  To oversimplify – Pralhad’s rationale was that it doesn’t make sense to be liberal with the youngsters.  The Indian system, that stuffs student’s head with rote learning, is okay – as the students get ample time to ruminate over it later to make sense of it!  Now that’s a kind of shocker, right?

Thank you NASSCOM for a thought provoking, and entertaining, evening!

Disclaimer: This note is my interpretation of what I heard which may or may not be what the concerned speakers meant!

Written by Abhay Shivgounda Patil

February 27, 2014 at 8:39 pm

Posted in Gen Y, talent management, Uncategorized

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